www.encognitive.com Meditation has been defined as “self regulation of attention, in the service of self-inquiry, in the here and now.” The various techniques of meditation can be classified according to their focus. Some focus on the field or background perception and experience, also called “mindfulness;” others focus on a preselected specific object, and are called “concentrative” meditation. There are also techniques that shift between the field and the object. In mindfulness meditation, the meditator sits comfortably and silently, centering attention by focusing awareness on an object or process (either the breath, a sound: a mantra, koan or riddle evoking questions; a visualisation, or an exercise). The meditator is usually encouraged to maintain an open focus: … shifting freely from one perception to the next clear your mind of all that bothers you no thoughts that can distract you from reality or your personal being… No thought, image or sensation is considered an intrusion. The meditator, with a ‘no effort’ attitude, is asked to remain in the here and now. Using the focus as an ‘anchor’… brings the subject constantly back to the present, avoiding cognitive analysis or fantasy regarding the contents of awareness, and increasing tolerance and relaxation of secondary thought processes. Concentration meditation is used in most religions and spiritual practices. Whereas in mindfulness meditation there is an open focus, in concentration meditation the …
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